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Betelgeuse, Winter Overlord

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==Name Origin==
 
==Name Origin==
<p style="line-height:19px;font-family:sans-serif;">'''Betelgeuse''' also known by its [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayer_designation Bayer designation] '''Alpha Orionis''' ('''α Orionis''', '''α Ori'''), is the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_brightest_stars eighth-brightest] star in the night sky and second-brightest in the constellation of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion_(constellation) Orion]. Distinctly reddish, it is a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiregular_variable_star semiregular variable star] whose [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apparent_magnitude apparent magnitude] varies between 0.2 and 1.2, the widest range of any [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luminosity#Magnitude first-magnitude star]. Betelgeuse is one of three stars that make up the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winter_Triangle Winter Triangle], and it marks the center of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winter_Hexagon Winter Hexagon]. The star's name is derived from the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_language Arabic] يد الجوزاء ''<span class="Unicode" style="text-decoration:none;" title="Arabic transliteration">Yad al-Jauzā'</span>'', meaning "the Hand of ''al-Jauzā'"'', ''i.e.'' Orion, with mistransliteration into [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_Latin medieval Latin]leading to the first character ''y'' being misread as a ''b''.</p>
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<p style="line-height:19px;font-family:sans-serif;">'''Betelgeuse''' (<span class="nowrap" style="white-space:nowrap;">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English /][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key <span style="border-bottom-width:1px;border-bottom-style:dotted;border-bottom-color:initial;" title="/ˈ/ primary stress follows">ˈ</span>][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key <span style="border-bottom-width:1px;border-bottom-style:dotted;border-bottom-color:initial;" title="'b' in 'buy'">b</span>][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key <span style="border-bottom-width:1px;border-bottom-style:dotted;border-bottom-color:initial;" title="/iː/ long 'e' in 'bead'">iː</span>][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key <span style="border-bottom-width:1px;border-bottom-style:dotted;border-bottom-color:initial;" title="'t' in 'tie'">t</span>][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key <span style="border-bottom-width:1px;border-bottom-style:dotted;border-bottom-color:initial;" title="/əl/ 'le' in 'bottle'">əl</span>][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key <span style="border-bottom-width:1px;border-bottom-style:dotted;border-bottom-color:initial;" title="/dʒ/ 'j' in 'jam'">dʒ</span>][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key <span style="border-bottom-width:1px;border-bottom-style:dotted;border-bottom-color:initial;" title="/uː/ long 'oo' in 'food'">uː</span>][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key <span style="border-bottom-width:1px;border-bottom-style:dotted;border-bottom-color:initial;" title="'z' in 'Zion'">z</span>][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English /]</span> or <span class="nowrap" style="white-space:nowrap;">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English /][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key <span style="border-bottom-width:1px;border-bottom-style:dotted;border-bottom-color:initial;" title="/ˈ/ primary stress follows">ˈ</span>][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key <span style="border-bottom-width:1px;border-bottom-style:dotted;border-bottom-color:initial;" title="'b' in 'buy'">b</span>][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key <span style="border-bottom-width:1px;border-bottom-style:dotted;border-bottom-color:initial;" title="/ɛ/ short 'e' in 'bed'">ɛ</span>][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key <span style="border-bottom-width:1px;border-bottom-style:dotted;border-bottom-color:initial;" title="'t' in 'tie'">t</span>][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key <span style="border-bottom-width:1px;border-bottom-style:dotted;border-bottom-color:initial;" title="/əl/ 'le' in 'bottle'">əl</span>][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key <span style="border-bottom-width:1px;border-bottom-style:dotted;border-bottom-color:initial;" title="/dʒ/ 'j' in 'jam'">dʒ</span>][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key <span style="border-bottom-width:1px;border-bottom-style:dotted;border-bottom-color:initial;" title="/uː/ long 'oo' in 'food'">uː</span>][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key <span style="border-bottom-width:1px;border-bottom-style:dotted;border-bottom-color:initial;" title="'z' in 'Zion'">z</span>][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English /]</span>),<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-OED_1-1" style="line-height:1em;">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betelgeuse#cite_note-OED-1 [1]]</sup> also known by its [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayer_designation Bayer designation] '''Alpha Orionis''' ('''α Orionis''', '''α Ori'''), is the[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_brightest_stars eighth-brightest] star in the night sky and second-brightest in the constellation of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion_(constellation) Orion]. Distinctly reddish, it is a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiregular_variable_star semiregular variable star] whose [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apparent_magnitude apparent magnitude] varies between 0.2 and 1.2, the widest range of any [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luminosity#Magnitude first-magnitude star]. Betelgeuse is one of three stars that make up the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winter_Triangle Winter Triangle], and it marks the center of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winter_Hexagon Winter Hexagon]. The star's name is derived from the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_language Arabic] يد الجوزاء ''<span class="Unicode" style="text-decoration:none;" title="Arabic transliteration">Yad al-Jauzā'</span>'', meaning "the Hand of ''al-Jauzā'"'', ''i.e.'' Orion, with mistransliteration into [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_Latin medieval Latin]leading to the first character ''y'' being misread as a ''b''.</p>
   
 
<p style="margin-top:0.4em;margin-bottom:0.5em;line-height:19px;font-family:sans-serif;">The star is classified as a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_supergiant red supergiant] of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_classification#Spectral_types spectral type] M2Iab and is one of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_known_stars largest] and most [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luminosity#Astronomy luminous] observable stars. If Betelgeuse were at the center of the Solar System, its surface would extend past the asteroid belt, possibly to the orbit of Jupiter and beyond, wholly engulfing Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Estimates of its mass are poorly constrained, but range from 5 to 30 times that of the Sun. Its distance from Earth was estimated in 2008 at 640 [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-year light-years], yielding a mean [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_magnitude absolute magnitude] of about −6.02. Less than 10 million years old, Betelgeuse has evolved rapidly because of its high mass. Having been ejected from its birthplace in the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion_OB1_Association Orion OB1 Association]—which includes the stars in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion%27s_Belt Orion's Belt]—this crimson [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_kinematics#Runaway_stars runaway] has been observed moving through the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interstellar_medium interstellar medium] at a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supersonic_speed supersonic speed] of 30 km/sec, creating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bow_shock bow shock] over 4 light-years wide. Currently in a late stage of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_evolution stellar evolution], the supergiant is expected to proceed through its life cycle before exploding as a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_II_supernova type II supernova] within the next million years.</p>
 
<p style="margin-top:0.4em;margin-bottom:0.5em;line-height:19px;font-family:sans-serif;">The star is classified as a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_supergiant red supergiant] of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_classification#Spectral_types spectral type] M2Iab and is one of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_known_stars largest] and most [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luminosity#Astronomy luminous] observable stars. If Betelgeuse were at the center of the Solar System, its surface would extend past the asteroid belt, possibly to the orbit of Jupiter and beyond, wholly engulfing Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Estimates of its mass are poorly constrained, but range from 5 to 30 times that of the Sun. Its distance from Earth was estimated in 2008 at 640 [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-year light-years], yielding a mean [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_magnitude absolute magnitude] of about −6.02. Less than 10 million years old, Betelgeuse has evolved rapidly because of its high mass. Having been ejected from its birthplace in the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion_OB1_Association Orion OB1 Association]—which includes the stars in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion%27s_Belt Orion's Belt]—this crimson [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_kinematics#Runaway_stars runaway] has been observed moving through the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interstellar_medium interstellar medium] at a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supersonic_speed supersonic speed] of 30 km/sec, creating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bow_shock bow shock] over 4 light-years wide. Currently in a late stage of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_evolution stellar evolution], the supergiant is expected to proceed through its life cycle before exploding as a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_II_supernova type II supernova] within the next million years.</p>
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